|Title||Direct Mapping of Heterogeneous Surface Coverage in DNA-Functionalized Gold Surfaces with Correlated Electron and Fluorescence Microscopy.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2018|
|Authors||Martens, I, Fisher, EA, Bizzotto, D|
The characterization of biofunctionalized surfaces such as alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold modified with DNA or other biomolecules is a challenging analytical problem, and access to a routine method is desirable. Despite substantial investigation from structural and mechanistic perspectives, robust and high-throughput metrology tools for SAMs remain elusive but essential for the continued development of these devices. We demonstrate that scanning electron microscopy (SEM) can provide image contrast of the molecular interface during SAM functionalization. The high-speed, large magnification range, and ease of use make this widely available technique a powerful platform for measuring the structure and composition of SAM surfaces. This increased throughput allows for a better understanding of the nonideal spatial heterogeneity characteristic of SAMs utilized in real-world conditions. SEM image contrast is characterized through the use of fluorescently labeled DNA, which enables correlative SEM and fluorescence microscopy. This allows identification of the DNA-modified regions at resolutions that approach the size of the biomolecule. The effect of electron beam irradiation dose is explored, which leads to straightforward lithographic patterning of DNA SAMs with nanometer resolution and with control over the surface coverage of specifically adsorbed DNA.