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DNA damage induced by methylated trivalent arsenicals is mediated by reactive oxygen species

TitleDNA damage induced by methylated trivalent arsenicals is mediated by reactive oxygen species
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2002
AuthorsNesnow, S, Roop, BC, Lambert, G, Kadiiska, M, Mason, RP, Cullen, WR, Mass, MJ
JournalChemical Research in Toxicology
Volume15
Pagination1627-1634
Date PublishedDec
Type of ArticleArticle
ISBN Number0893-228X
KeywordsDIMETHYLARSINIC ACID, DRINKING-WATER, ENZYMATIC METHYLATION, FREE-RADICALS, HEPATOCYTES, HUMAN, HUMAN URINE, MALE F344 RATS, MONOMETHYLARSONOUS ACID MMA(III), ORAL-EXPOSURE, RAT-LIVER CYTOSOL
Abstract

Arsenic is a human carcinogen; however, the mechanisms of arsenic’s induction of carcinogenic effects have not been identified clearly. We have shown previously that monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III)) and dimethylarsinous acid (DMA(III)) are genotoxic and can damage supercoiled phiX174 DNA and the DNA in peripheral human lymphocytes in culture. These trivalent arsenicals are biomethylated forms of inorganic arsenic and have been detected in the urine of subjects exposed to arsenite and arsenate. We show here by molecular, chemical, and physical methods that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are intermediates in the DNA-damaging activities of MMA(III) and DMA(III). Using the phiX174 DNA nicking assay we found that the ROS inhibitors Tiron, melatonin, and the vitamin E analogue Trolox inhibited the DNA-nicking activities of both MMA(III) and DMA(III) at low micromolar concentrations. The spin trap agent 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) also was effective at preventing the DNA nicking induced by MMA(III) and DMA(III.) ESR spectroscopy studies using DMPO identified a radical as a ROS intermediate in the DNA incubations with DMA(III). This radical adduct was assigned to the DMPO-hydroxyl free radical adduct on the basis of comparison of the observed hyperfine splitting constants and line widths with those reported in the literature. The formation of the DMPO-hydroxyl free radical adduct was dependent on time and the presence of DMA(III) and was completely inhibited by Tiron and Trolox and partially inhibited by DMSO. Using electrospray mass spectrometry, micromolar concentrations of DMA(v) were detected in the DNA incubation mixtures with DMA(III). These data are consistent with the conclusions that the DNA-damaging activity of DMA(III) is an indirect genotoxic effect mediated by ROS-formed concomitantly with the oxidation of DMA(III) to DMA(v).

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