|Title||Effects of Inorganic Acids and Organic Solutes on the Ice Nucleating Ability and Surface Properties of Potassium-Rich Feldspar|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2021|
|Authors||Yun, J, Kumar, A, Removski, N, Shchukarev, A, Link, N, Boily, J-F, Bertram, AK|
|Journal||ACS EARTH AND SPACE CHEMISTRY|
|Date Published||APR 2021|
Mineral dust particles can initiate the freezing of cloud droplets in the atmosphere. The freezing efficiency of these particles can, however, be strongly affected by solutes, such as inorganic acids, polyols, and carboxylic acids. Here, we report the effects of inorganic acids (HNO3 and HCl), polyols, and carboxylic acids at low concentrations on the ice nucleating ability of potassium-rich feldspar (K-rich feldspar) using the droplet freezing technique. The inorganic acids and carboxylic acids decreased the median freezing temperature of droplets containing K-rich feldspar by up to 7 °C, while the polyols had no significant effect on the median freezing temperature. For the inorganic acids and carboxylic acids, the median freezing temperature was a strong function of the pH of the droplets, with the median freezing temperature decreasing as the pH decreased. By examining the surface properties of K-rich feldspar exposed to different concentrations of HCl with cryogenic X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we show that the decrease in the ice nucleating ability of K-rich feldspar by the inorganic acids and carboxylic acids was likely caused by ion exchange (H3O+ with parent K+ in microcline) and the incongruent dissolution of Al with respect to Si at K-rich feldspar surfaces. The decrease in the ice nucleating ability of K-rich feldspar by the carboxylic acids only related to the pH of the droplets rather than the type of carboxylic acid and their expected binding mechanisms on K-rich feldspar. This study focuses on rare ice nucleating active sites (with an ice nucleating active site density of 10–600 cm–2) of the K-rich feldspar and short exposure times between the solutes and the K-rich feldspar. Further studies are needed to investigate more abundant ice nucleating active sites and longer exposure times, as well as K-rich feldspar samples from different sources.