|Title||The enzymes of sialic acid biosynthesis|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2005|
|Type of Article||Review|
|Keywords||2-EPIMERASE/N-ACETYLMANNOSAMINE KINASE, BIFUNCTIONAL KEY ENZYME, biosynthesis, ESCHERICHIA-COLI K1, FIRST 2, KDO8P SYNTHASE, MECHANISM, N-ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE 2-EPIMERASE, N-acetylmannosamine, N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID, NEISSERIA-MENINGITIDIS, PHOSPHATE, phosphoenolpyruvate, RAT-LIVER, sialic acid synthase, STEPS, SYNTHASE GENE, UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase|
The sialic acids are a family of nine carbon a-keto acids that play a wide variety of biological roles in nature. In mammals, they are found at the distal ends of cell surface glycoconjugates, and thus are major determinants of cellular recognition and adhesion events. In certain strains of pathogenic bacteria, they are found in capsular polysaccharides that mask the organism from the immune system by mimicking the exterior of a mammalian cell. This review outlines recent developments in the understanding of the two main enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of the sialic acid, N-acetylneuraminic acid. The first, a hydrolyzing UDP-N-acetyl-glucosamine 2-epimerase, generates N-acetylmannosamine and UDP from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine. The second, sialic acid synthase, generates either N-acetylneuraminic acid (bacteria) or N-acetylneuraminic acid 9-phosphate (mammals) in a condensation reaction with phosphoenolpyruvate. An emphasis is placed on an understanding of the mechanistic and structural features of these enzymes. (c) 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
|URL||<Go to ISI>://000229463100007|