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Monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III)) is more toxic than arsenite in Chang human hepatocytes

TitleMonomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III)) is more toxic than arsenite in Chang human hepatocytes
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2000
AuthorsPetrick, JS, Ayala-Fierro, F, Cullen, WR, Carter, DE, Aposhian, HV
JournalToxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Volume163
Pagination203-207
Date PublishedMar
Type of ArticleArticle
ISBN Number0041-008X
KeywordsARSENATE, ARSENITE, ASSAY, CELLS, Chang human hepatocytes, DIMETHYLARSINIC ACID, DMA, DMA(V), DMPS, ENZYMATIC METHYLATION, LDH, LIVER, MICE, MMA(III), MMA(V), monomethylarsonic acid, MONOMETHYLARSONOUS ACID, POTASSIUM, VIABILITY, XTT
Abstract

Methylation has been considered to be the primary detoxication pathway of inorganic arsenic. Inorganic arsenic is methylated by many, but not all animal species, to monomethylarsonic acid (MMA(V)), monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III)), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)). The As-V derivatives have been assumed to produce low toxicity, but the relative toxicity of MMA(III) remains unknown. In vitro toxicities of arsenate, arsenite, MMA(V), MMA(III) and DMA(V) were determined in Chang human hepatocytes, Leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and intracellular potassium (K+) and mitochondrial metabolism of the tetrazolium salt XTT were used to assess cytotoxicity due to arsenic exposure. The mean LC50 based on LDH assays in phosphate media was 6 mu M for MMA(III) and 68 mu M for arsenite. Using the assay for K+ leakage in phosphate media, the mean LC50 was 6.3 mu M for MMA(III) and 19.8 mu M for arsenite. The mean LC50 based on the XTT assay in phosphate media was 13.6 mu M for MMA(III) and 164 mu M for arsenite. The results of the three cytotoxicity assays (LDH, K+, and XTT) reveal the following order of toxicity in Chang human hepatocytes: MMA(III) > arsenite > arsenate > MMA(V) = DMA(V). Data demonstrate that MMA(III) an intermediate in inorganic arsenic methylation, is highly toxic and again raises the question as to whether methylation of inorganic arsenic is a detoxication process. (C) 2000 Academic Press.

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