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Pre-treatments applied to oxidized aluminum surfaces to modify the interfacial bonding with bis-1,2-(triethoxysilyl)ethane (BTSE) - Part I. High-purity Al with native oxide

TitlePre-treatments applied to oxidized aluminum surfaces to modify the interfacial bonding with bis-1,2-(triethoxysilyl)ethane (BTSE) - Part I. High-purity Al with native oxide
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2005
AuthorsTeo, M, Kim, J, Wong, PC, Wong, KC, Mitchell, KAR
JournalApplied Surface Science
Volume252
Pagination1293-1304
Date PublishedDec
Type of ArticleArticle
ISBN Number0169-4332
Keywordsaluminum, ESCA, OXIDATION, PARALLEL FACTOR-ANALYSIS, silane adsorption, SILANE COUPLING AGENTS, SIMS, SPECTROSCOPY, surface pre-treatment, THIN-FILMS, TOF-SIMS, X-ray photoelectron, XPS, XPS INVESTIGATIONS, ZIRCONIUM-OXIDE
Abstract

A remote microwave-generated H-2 plasma and heating to 250 degrees C were separately used to modify high-purity oxidized aluminum surfaces and to assess whether these treatments can help enhance adhesion with bis-1,2-(triethoxysilyl)ethane (BTSE) coatings. Different initial oxide surfaces were considered, corresponding to the native oxide and to surfaces formed by the Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) treatment applied for either 15 or 60 min. BTSE is applied from solution at pH 4, and competing processes of etching, protonation (to form OH groups) and coupling (to form Al-O-Si interfacial bonds) occur at the solid-liquid interface. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to determine how the topographies of the modified Al surfaces changed with the different pre-treatments and with exposure to a buffer solution of pH 4. Secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) was used to determine the direct amount of Al-O-Si interfacial bonds by measuring the ratio of peak intensities 71-70 amu, while X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to determine the overall strength of the silane coating adhesion by measuring the Si 2p signals before and after application of an ultrasonic rinse to the coated sample. Measured Al 2p and O 1s spectra helped assess how the different pre-treatments modified the various Al oxidized surfaces prior to BTSE coating. Pre-treated samples that showed increased Al-O-Si bonding after BTSE coating corresponded to surfaces, which did not show evidence of significant etching after exposure to a pH 4 environment. This suggests that such surfaces are more receptive to the coupling reaction during exposure to the BTSE coating solution. These surfaces include all H-2 plasma-treated samples, the heated native oxide and the sample that only received the 15 min FPL treatment. In contrast, other surfaces that show evidence of etching in pH 4 environments are samples that received lower amounts of Al-O-Si interfacial bonding. Overall, heating improved the BTSE adhesive bonding for the native Al oxide, while H-2 plasma treatment improved the BTSE bonding for surfaces that had initially been FPL-treated for 15 and 60 min. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V All rights reserved.

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