Many chemical products, both legacy banned substances and current-use materials, enter our environment. Some of these chemicals are produced and consumed with high volumes globally, may be persistent in the environment and pose risks to ecosystems and humans. Thus, the sources and environmental fate of anthropogenic chemicals are of significant scientific and public concern. Our research demonstrated that many legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs), some of which have been banned for many years, are still widely distributed in the environment and associated with the endocrine disruption of aquatic organisms. In addition, stereoselective biotransformation is an important factor affecting the different exposure, biological fate, and toxicity of chiral POPs and their metabolites at stereoisomer level. In recent years, there has been increasing attention paid to the environmental behavior of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) such as plastic additives, personal care products, and current-use pesticides. Knowing the point sources of CECs and how these contaminants transport and transform in the environment is crucial for establishing effective chemical management systems and protecting the health of ecosystems and humans. Using recent insights from field and laboratory experiments, this presentation will include information regarding the emissions, distribution and fate of legacy POPs and CECs in the environment.