|Title||Spectroscopic detection of halogen bonding resolves dye regeneration in the dye-sensitized solar cell|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2017|
|Authors||Parlane, FGL, Mustoe, C, Kellett, CW, Simon, SJ, Swords, WB, Meyer, GJ, Kennepohl, P, Berlinguette, CP|
The interactions between a surface-adsorbed dye and a soluble redox-active electrolyte species in the dye-sensitized solar cell has a significant impact on the rate of regeneration of photo-oxidized dye molecules and open-circuit voltage of the device. Dyes must therefore be designed to encourage these interfacial interactions, but experimentally resolving how such weak interactions affect electron transfer is challenging. Herein, we use X-ray absorption spectroscopy to confirm halogen bonding can exist at the dye-electrolyte interface. Using a known series of triphenylamine-based dyes bearing halogen substituents geometrically positioned for reaction with halides in solution, halogen bonding was detected only in cases where brominated and iodinated dyes were photo-oxidized. This result implies that weak intermolecular interactions between photo-oxidized dyes and the electrolyte can impact device photovoltages. This result was unexpected considering the low concentration of oxidized dyes (less than 1 in 100,000) under full solar illumination.