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LINEAR QUADRUPOLES IN MASS SPECTROMETRY

TitleLINEAR QUADRUPOLES IN MASS SPECTROMETRY
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2009
AuthorsDouglas, DJ
JournalMass Spectrometry Reviews
Volume28
Pagination937-960
Date PublishedNov-Dec
Type of ArticleReview
ISBN Number0277-7037
Keywords2ND STABILITY REGION, axial fields, AXIAL-FIELD, CHARGED-PARTICLE, COLLISION-INDUCED DISSOCIATION, distorted fields, FRINGING FIELDS, ion guide, ION OPTICAL-PROPERTIES, linear, mass filter, mass scans, multipoles, OCTOPOLE FIELDS, QUADRUPOLE, quadrupole excitation, RADIO-FREQUENCY, RESOLUTION, SEPARATION MODE, STABILITY, TRAJECTORIES, VOLTAGE COMPONENT
Abstract

The use of linear quadrupoles in mass spectrometry as mass filters and ion guides is reviewed. Following a tutorial review of the principles of mass filter operation, methods of mass analysis are reviewed. Discussed are extensions of quadrupole mass filters to higher masses, scanning with frequency sweeps of the quadrupole waveform, operation in higher stability regions, and operation with rectangular or other periodic waveforms. Two relatively new methods of mass analysis the use of "islands of stability" and "mass selective axial ejection" are then reviewed. The optimal electrode geometry for a quadrupole mass filter constructed with round rods is discussed. The use of collisional cooling in quadrupole ion guides is discussed along with ion guides that have axial fields. Finally, mass analysis with quadrupoles that have large distortions to the geometry and fields is discussed. An Appendix gives a brief tutorial review of definitions of electrical potentials and fields, as well as the units used in this article. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., Mass Spec Rev 28:937-960, 2009

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