|Title||Standard method design considerations for semi-quantification of total naphthenic acids in oil sands process affected water by mass spectrometry: A review|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2017|
|Authors||Kovalchik, KA, MacLennan, MS, Peru, KM, Headley, JV, Chen, DDY|
|Journal||Frontiers of Chemical Science and Engineering|
|Type of Article||Review|
Naphthenic acids are a complex class of thousands of naturally occurring aliphatic and alicyclic carboxylic acids found in oil sands bitumen and in the wastewater generated from bitumen processing. Dozens of analytical methods have been developed for the semi-quantification of total naphthenic acids in water samples. However, different methods can give different results, prompting investigation into the comparability of the many methods. A review of important methodological features for analyzing total naphthenic acids is presented and informs the design of future standard methods for the semi-quantification of total naphthenic acids using mass spectrometry. The design considerations presented are a synthesis of discussions from an Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC) led taskforce of 10 laboratory experts from government, industry and academia during April 2016 and subsequent discussions between University of British Columbia and ECCC representatives. Matters considered are: extraction method, solvent, pH, and temperature; analysis instrumentation and resolution; choice of calibration standards; use of surrogate and internal standards; and use of online or offline separation prior to analysis. The design considerations are amenable to both time-of-flight and Orbitrap mass spectrometers.