|Title||Using two-dimensional distributions to inform the mixing state of soot and salt particles produced in gas flares|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2021|
|Authors||Sipkens, TA, Trivanovic, U, Naseri, A, Bello, OW, Baldelli, A, Kazemimanesh, M, Bertram, AK, Kostiuk, L, Corbin, JC, Olfert, JS, Rogak, SN|
|Journal||Journal of Aerosol Science|
|Date Published||NOV 2021|
Gas flaring is a common practice in the oil and gas industry, where droplets of flowback water with varying levels of dissolved salts (mainly composed of sodium and chloride) often become entrained in the flared gas. In this study, we examine the mixing state of the aerosol produced by a laboratory flare with and without entrained droplets of sodium chloride solutions. The resultant aerosol is cross-examined using several different methods, including: transmission electron microscopy (TEM), tandem measurements using a CPMA and a differential mobility analyzer (DMA), tandem measurements using a centrifugal particle mass analyzer (CPMA) and a single particle soot photometer (SP2), and Raman spectroscopy. A focus is placed on two-dimensional distributions of properties and the kind of morphological information contained therein. The TEM and CPMA-SP2 measurements both show that the majority of soot particles were internally mixed with salt, while TEM and CPMA-DMA measurements indicate that there are also a large number of isolated salt particles.