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A general route to xyloglucan-peptide conjugates for the activation of cellulose surfaces

TitleA general route to xyloglucan-peptide conjugates for the activation of cellulose surfaces
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2012
AuthorsAraujo, ACatarina, Nakhai, A, Ruda, M, Slattegard, R, Gatenholm, P, Brumer, H
Date PublishedJUN 1
Type of ArticleArticle

Cellulose is an attractive supporting matrix for diverse biotechnological applications, including chromatography, diagnostics, and tissue replacement/scaffolding, due to its renewable resource status, low cost, and low non-specific interaction with biomolecules. In an effort to expand the biofunctionality of cellulose materials, we present here a versatile method for the synthesis of xyloglucan-peptide conjugates that harness the strong xyloglucan-cellulose binding interaction for gentle surface modification. Xylogluco-oligosaccharide aminoalditols (XGO-NH2) were coupled to both linear and cyclic peptides, which contained the endothelial cell epitope Arg-Gly-Asp, in a facile two-step approach employing diethyl squarate cross-linking. Subsequent xyloglucan endo-transglycosylase-mediated coupling of the resulting XGO-GRGDS (Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser) and XGO-c{[}RGDfK]-PEG-PEG (cyclo{[}Arg-Gly-Asp-(D-Phe)-Lys]-PEG-PEG; where PEG is 8-amino-3,6-dioxaoctanoic acid) conjugates into high molecular mass xyloglucan yielded xyloglucan-RGD peptide conjugates suitable for cellulose surface activation. Notably, use of XGO-squaramate as a readily accessible, versatile intermediate overcomes previous limitations of solid-phase synthetic approaches to XGO-peptide conjugates, and furthermore allows the method to be generalized to a wide variety of polypeptides and proteins, as well as diverse primary amino compounds. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.