|Title||Investigation of fluorocarbon blowing agents in insulating polymer foams by F-19 NMR imaging|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||1996|
|Authors||Fyfe, CA, Mel, Z, Grondey, H|
|Journal||Magnetic Resonance Imaging|
|Type of Article||Proceedings Paper|
Currently, there is no reliable and readily accessible technique with which the distribution and diffusion of blowing agents in rigid insulating foams can be detected and monitored, In this paper, we demonstrate that F-19. NMR microscopic imaging together with F-19 solid-state MAS NMR spectroscopy is ideally suited for such measurements and yield quantitatively reliable information that will be critical to the development and fabrication of optimized insulating materials with alternative blowing agents, Polystyrene (PS) and polyurethane (PU) foam samples were investigated with the objective of determining quantitatively the amount of blowing agents in the gaseous phase and dissolved in the polymer phase, and to determine and monitor the distribution of the blowing agents in aged foams as a function of time and temperature. The concentrations of the gaseous blowing agents in the cells and dissolved in the solid were simultaneously and quantitatively measured by F-19 MAS NMR spectroscopy, An unfaced 1-yr-old PS foam filled with CH3CF2Cl has about 13% of total HCFCs dissolved in the solid; while there is about 24% of HCFCs in the solid of a faced 3-mos-old PU foam filled with CH3CCl2F. The data from F-19 NMR imaging demonstrate that the distributions of the blowing agents in an aged foam are quite uniform around the center part (2 cm away from any edge) of a foam board; however, a gradient in blowing agent concentration was found as a function of distance from the initial factory cut edge. The effective diffusion coefficients of the blowing agents can be directly calculated from the imaging data, Quantitative diffusion constants and activation barriers were determined. Additionally, a foam treated with a second blowing agent was monitored with chemical shift selective imaging and the diffusion of the second gas into the foam and the out-diffusion of the original gas were determined. Copyright (C) 1996 Elsevier Science Inc.
|URL||<Go to ISI>://A1996VW49700034|