|Title||A new hot-stage microscopy technique for measuring temperature-dependent viscosities of aerosol particles and its application to farnesene secondary organic aerosol|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2022|
|Authors||Kiland, KJ, Marroquin, KL, Smith, NR, Xu, S, Nizkorodov, SA, Bertram, AK|
|Journal||ATMOSPHERIC MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES|
|Date Published||SEP 2022|
The viscosity of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is needed to improve predictions of air quality, climate, and atmospheric chemistry. Many techniques have been developed to measure the viscosity of micrometer-sized materials at room temperature; however, few techniques are able to measure viscosity as a function of temperature for these small sample sizes. SOA in the troposphere experience a wide range of temperatures, so measurement of viscosity as a function of temperature is needed. To address this need, a new method was developed based on hot-stage microscopy combined with fluid dynamics simulations. The current method can be used to determine viscosities in the range of roughly 104 to 108 Pa s at temperatures greater than room temperature. Higher viscosities may be measured if experiments are carried out over multiple days. To validate our technique, the viscosities of 1,3,5-tris(1-naphthyl)benzene and phenolphthalein dimethyl ether were measured and compared with values reported in the literature. Good agreement was found between our measurements and literature data. As an application to SOA, the viscosity as a function of temperature for lab-generated farnesene SOA material was measured, giving values ranging from 3.1×106 Pa s at 51 ∘C to 2.6×104 Pa s at 67 ∘C. We fit the temperature-dependent data to the Vogel–Fulcher–Tammann (VFT) equation and obtained a fragility parameter for the material of 7.29±0.03, which is very similar to the fragility parameter of 7 reported for α-pinene SOA by Petters and Kasparoglu (2020). These results demonstrate that the viscosity as a function of temperature can be measured for lab-generated SOA material using our hot-stage microscopy method.