Textbook: General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications (10th Edition), Petrucci, Herring, Madura and Bissonette
3 Weeks Chemical Equilibrium:
- The equilibrium state, reaction quotient, equilibrium constant.
- Le Chatelier's Principle, gaseous equilibrium.
- Acids and bases, ionic equilibrium, buffers, titrations.
- Solubility products.
3 Weeks Thermochemistry & Thermodynamics:
First and second law, entropy, free energy, relation to equilibrium constants and their interdependence, electrochemical cells, Nernst Equation.
6 Weeks Organic Chemistry
Review of bonding: covalent and polar bonds, Lewis structures, bonding in methane, ethane, ethene, ethyne. Methyl cation, radical (radicals in biology) and anion; bond angles, dipole moment ,acidity and basicity, Lewis acids and Lewis bases constitutional isomers (structural isomers), nomenclature of organic compounds (including cycloalkanes), common names, review of various functional groups, primary, secondary, tertiary carbons and hydrogens; quaternary carbon and nitrogen, conformations of alkanes and of cyclohexane; staggered/ eclipsed conformations; anti/gauche conformers torsional strain, steric strain, angle strain; chair conformations, axial and equatorial bonds in cyclohexanes, "ring-flipping", conformations of substituted cyclohexanes.
Configurational isomers, stereogenic centres, R/S system of nomenclature isomers with more than one stereogenic centre, meso compounds, resolution of racemic mixtures cis-trans isomerism (E, Z)
Introduction to reaction mechanisms, SN1 and SN2.
Final Examination 40